Basic Facts About India


Country Name:Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya.
Independence: India got its independence on August 15th, 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule).
Government Type:Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.
Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
Legislature: Sansad.
Legal System:The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.
Executive Branch:The President of India is the Head of the State, while Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of Council of Ministers who forms the Cabinet Ministry.
Legislative Branch:The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the people) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.
Judicial Branch:The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
Area: 32, 87, 263 sq.km (3.3 Million sq. km.)
Area wise in the world:7th position.
Capital: New Delhi.
Telephone Code:+91
Official Language:Hindi, English.
Location: India extends between latitudes 8o4'N and 37o6'N. It is a country of the east with its landmass lying between longitudes 68o7'E and 97o25'E.
Stretch: 3,214 Kilometers from north to south, 2,933 Kilometers from east to west.
Land Frontier:    15,200 km
Coastline: 7516.5 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Administrative Division:28 States and 7 Union Territories.
High Point:Kanchenjunga 8,598 m.
National Flag: The National Flag is the horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the center of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
National Emblem:The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor Ashoka. The emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe.
National Anthem:The Jana Gana Mana is the national Anthem of India, composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was officially adopted by the constituent Aseembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950.
National Song:Bankim Chandra Chatterji's composed song "Vande Mataram" was adopted as the National Song. It has an equal status with "Jana Gana Mana". It was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
National Animal:Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is symbol of India's wildlife wealth. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, is a striped animal.
National Bird:The Peacock, Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty grace, pride.
National Fruit:Mango is the national fruit of India. Described as the "Food of the Gods", in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India.
National Flower:Lotus botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India.
National Tree:Banyan Tree is the National Tree of India. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees.
National Calendar:The Saka calender is the national calender of India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calender.
National Days:26th January (Republic Day), 15th August (Independence Day) and 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)
Neighbouring Countries:India shares its political borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east. The northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. India is separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar.
Physical Feature:The mainland consists of four well-defined regions: (i) The great mountain zone, (ii) The Indo-Gangetic plain, (iii) The desert region and (iv) The Southern Peninsula
Rivers: The main rivers of the Himalayan group are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Climate: There are four seasons which are recognised by the India Meteorological department. They are - Cold weather, hot weather, rainy season and the season of the retreating south-west monsoon.
Fauna:       Approx. 89,451 species
National Parks:94
Wildlife Sanctuaries:501
Population: 1,203,710,000 (March 2011) (17% of the world's population)
Population wise place in the world: 2nd
Population density:324 people per square kilometer
Population growth:21.34 %
Sex Ratio:933 females per 1000 males
Literacy: 65.38 %
Male Literacy:75.85 %
Female Literacy:54.16 %

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